Instead of relying on authentication and firewalls alone, secure systems are actively monitored by a security hacker or a muse. These digital security guards inspect network traffic using a number of software tools and applications that flag conspicuous events. Active surveillance makes intrusions more difficult, since the interloper must defeat the monitoring hacker/AI. Active monitoring also includes monitoring any devices slaved to the monitored system.
Individuals may actively monitor their own PANs if they so choose, though this requires a moderate level of attention. It is far more common for a muse to actively guard a user’s PAN.